Antica Viabilità in Abruzzo: 4 (Classici dAbruzzo) (Italian Edition)
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Hooper and H. Ash Hulliung , Montesquieu , ch. Crucial civic virtues, without which republics fall according the sociological history of Montesquieu. Such autarchical ideals can be recognized in the small allotment size, which enforce frugality and puritanism; qualities that in turn served as an antidote to the corrupting influences of imperialism and the eventual decline of militarily successful societies.
Niebuhr would settle the controversy in favor of the moderate faction: he firmly re established the orthodoxy that the agrarian laws applied only to public lands. Notwithstanding these appealing possibilities, Salmon does not seem to have been attracted to these ideological and socio-political studies. He does not highlight the potential importance of the Roman colonization program in creating and supporting the crucially important peasant-soldier communities and connected civic virtues.
He addresses Roman colonial land-division practices only briefly and makes no allusion to the importance of this socio-economic and political arrangement for Roman imperial success. Now that the Roman land-surveying practices they described had been attested empirically, interest in the writings of the land surveyors peaked.
Niebuhr first published in On this, see Momigliano ; Ridley ; and Rich , with further references.
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Salmon , esp. It is significant that Salmon discusses colonial allotments mostly in footnotes. In the early 20th century, important progress in this field was made by fraccaro e. On his work, see also Attolini His work was continued by his student Castagnoli cf. Bradford ; Castagnoli Other pioneering publications from this period include Bradford ; id.
Dilke , Although Salmon was clearly aware of these studies, he bluntly dismissed their impact by briefly stating that the centuriation systems detected from the air could not be dated properly and might easily belong to later viritane land-division programs.
In origin, most of these systems were carved out of territories raw from conquest, and even now, in retrospect, their appearance deeply stirs the imagination, — so boldly artificial was the conception and drastic the creation as compared with any earlier man-made landscape in this region. Bradford , Chevallier , Salmon had strong anti-Soviet and more generally anti-Russian political views, which may go some way towards explaining why portraying colonies as more or less egalitarian societies did not appeal to him. In any case, his attempt to undermine the importance of these new findings squares neatly with his hidden agenda to demonstrate that it was above all Roman military strategy, and especially the Roman instinct for knowing what areas are the most important to control, that had won Rome its empire.
It is telling that in his brief discussion of the evidence for centuriation systems Salmon questions its association particularly with Mid-Republican Roman colonization. Since the Romans had already proven to be the strongest power in the Mediterranean by the late 3rd c.
By questioning the existence of these impressively ordered and monumental colonial landscapes in the early colonial period, Salmon thus challenged the view that they played an important role in Roman imperial success as the habitat of the vitally important soldier-farmer and as a potent demonstration of Roman power and organizational skill to the conquered, thus dampening any aspirations to revolt. Pelgrom , More recently, cf. Purcell , ; Quilici , , ; Campbell , Since the early comprehensive attempts of the Renaissance period to understand the role of colonies in Roman society, different aspects of Roman colonization have increasingly been discussed in separate discourses.
Rather, he pursued one particular perspective to the extreme. Issues that are central to the character of Roman colonization continue to be studied in separate disciplines: from Roman historiography, urban archaeology, fIG. What for Salmon would have been an ambitious challenge, today. See also Broadhead ; Stek , , and its reading list on page Nevertheless, we believe that at this point a step in this direction is indispensable, and has potential.
It should be emphasized that this is only a first step in this direction and that it is very far from a conclusion. Rather, the aim is to outline a possible and promising agenda for future research and to explore the potentially productive interplay between different emerging research areas that are currently isolated. We have outlined four main thematic fields, which correspond with the four parts in which this volume is divided.
Contextualizing Roman Republican colonization. Backgrounds, definitions and comparanda the first part of the book explores the general character and function of Roman Republican colonization in relation to emerging ideas of the social structure of early Rome and the character of early Roman expansion and imperialism. In contrast, terrenato notes that this argument fails to account for the sudden burst of expansion at the beginning of the 4th c. Rather, he challenges the claim that a single center, Rome - and the Roman Senate - drove the imperialistic process.
In this important paper terrenato takes a closer look at some of the family groups involved, both in Rome and in incorporated communities, in the 4th and 3rd c.
As we just saw, Roman imperialism cannot be understood merely in terms of internal factors as Harris proposed. Also Roman reactions to neighboring states were decisive and the pace and direction of conquest was shaped both by favorable and unfavorable factors. Scholars such as Arthur eckstein and John Rich have emphasized the genuine unpredictability of Roman behavior, and especially the element of fear. In particular, eckstein has stressed the anarchic nature of interstate relations in Italy itself: Roman control over Italy was less certain than hindsight might suggest.
Harris Rich Coarelli Although it should be noted that Salmon actually believed more in Roman character,. Reviewing the historical evidence, Jeremia Pelgrom argues that the conventional understanding of colonies as territorial states with clearly defined topographic borders is not as self-evident as is often believed.
New legal studies have reopened the door for considering different forms of colonial organization in which social or other criteria, rather than territorial boundaries, were decisive for determining colonial membership. In this model, colonial jurisdiction is restricted to the members of the colony and the fields they farmed. A colony may have possessed a unified territory, but this is no longer strictly necessary, and different, patchier scenarios are possible. Stek proposes instead that the pattern of sacred and ritual sites in colonial territories points rather to a correlation between cult places and rural settlement nucleation than to the territorial demarcation of the hinterland of the colonial urban center.
In their outward appearance, they presumably resembled military forts more closely than monumental cities. Interestingly, members of these colonies were exempt from legionary service, the so-called vacatio militiae, which has been a pivotal notion in explaining the function of this type of colonization, as well as the purpose of colonization in general.
Colonial landscapes. Colonists and natives shaping the urban, natural and social environment the second part of this volume is dedicated to colonial urbanism in relation to the organization of the rural areas of Roman colonies.
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It opens with an important discussion by Jamie Sewell. Sewell considers the vexed model-replica theory of Roman colonization studies, in which Rome is seen as a model for her colonies in their urban lay-out, and proposes a different way of understanding the adoption and adaptation of Roman, Greek, and other traditions of city planning by investigating the built environment of colonial towns. Notably, Sewell explores the similarity and contemporaneity of the expansion strategies attributed to Rome and to Philip II of Macedonia and proposes a historical link between them.
In Picenum, cities developed unevenly and often appeared relatively late, seldom before the 3rd c. According to Vermeulen, however, Roman intentions regarding the urbanisation of late Republican central-Adriatic Italy are clearly recognizable: a mostly linear network of new towns in strategic positions along the coastline is connected to an evenly spread system of incorporated and expanded indigenous centers in the interior. Drawing on new data from both surveys and excavations in four urban centers of northern Picenum the colony of Potentia and the municipia of Ricina, trea, and Septempeda , Vermeulen shows that even if these towns occupied a relatively small area, their basic infrastructure is comparable to most important cities in Italy.
Working from a very different, more legal-institutional angle, Michel tarpin reconsiders the relationship between native inhabitants and colonists and the ways in which this relationship may have shaped the legal and administrative colonial landscape. In particular, he demonstrates how the diversity of the Roman territorial lexicon reflects different arrangements between Roman colonists and conquered or incorporated communities and the establishment of new communities within Roman colonial territories.
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Adopting a socio-economic approach, ella Hermon investigates the relationship between Roman colonization and the management of natural resources and the environment at large for agricultural and safety purposes. In discussions of the colonial hinterland, focus has usually been on land-division systems, often in relation to the social structure of colonial communities. Historical sources relate that various colonies, such as Norba, Setia, and Circeii, were created in the area in the early Republican period. Basing her research on years of intensive field surveys in these areas, Marchi demonstrates how diversely colonial landscapes could develop in similar chronological and geographical frameworks.
At the same time, she recognizes the strong impact Roman settlers had on the landscape, sometimes visible in clearly new settlement organization forms. Bellini, Alessandro launaro and Martin Millett offers a detailed examination of earlier, partly unpublished studies of the latin colony of Interamna lirenas and explores how this data affects our general understanding of Roman colonization and the Roman economy.
It is of crucial importance to conduct new fieldwork and to improve our knowledge of local material culture. The religious dimension of Roman colonization the third part of this volume is dedicated to colonial cults and religious practices. It focuses on the role of colonial cults in promoting social cohesion within the newly established colony and in defining relationships with other communities and on the role of magistrates in the decision-making process.
Marion Bolder-Boos explores the role of tutelary or patron deities for colonial communities in both newly established colonies and pre-Roman cities where colonies would have been established later on. Although, again as a consequence of the Gellian model, most scholars studying colonial cults have focused their attention on the Capitoline triad, colonies often had tutelary deities of their own.
Bolder-Boos describes the variety of these tutelary deities and their respective backgrounds in the context of individual colonial communities. In contrast, Andrea Carini focuses on the role of a single god in different Roman colonial contexts: Apollo. Carini therefore takes up the evidence for Apollo in colonial settlements in Italy, including evidence that is often rejected or ignored, to conclude that Apollo, frequently together with Diana, also played a crucial role in the religious formulation of colonial communities in Italy.
Daniela liberatore presents fascinating new evidence from the sanctuary of Hercules in the forum of the colony of Alba fucens founded B.
Recent excavations have revealed an exceptionally rich and well-preserved set of ceramics, votives, statuettes, altars, and inscriptions. Many small votives and statuettes clearly refer to older ritual traditions from the region, while some ceramic forms and altars appear to have been introduced after the colonization of the area. Notably, the inscriptions on some altars are in latin but mention local family names. The creation of Roman centrality the fourth and final part of the volume consists of two papers that discuss the importance of early Roman colonial models in slightly later periods.
Mario torelli explores the flexible character of the religious and ideological ties of colonies to Rome by discussing the adoption and adaptation of the Capitoline model in imperial cities. Although a Capitolium temple, the building par excellence to signal colonial status in imperial times, was expected to be found at the site, archaeologists have not been able to identify any of the numerous temples located in the central area as the lepcitan Capitolium.
Ingeniously, torelli argues that an official cult place for the Capitoline triad indeed existed, but in a non-traditional form. Building on this new identification, torelli discusses a series of Capitolia with exceptional layouts and their implications for our understanding of colonial religion. In literary sources on ancient Rome, the pomerium and city walls are often closely associated and even.
In this chapter, Sisani proposes that the confusion in ancient and modern texts alike is due to colonial practices in the late Republican period, when no separate pomerium was marked out, but rather coincided with the city walls. We are confident that the multi-disciplinary collection of recent theories and evidence presented in this volume will contribute to a more comprehensive understanding of Roman colonization and imperialism.
References Abbott, f. Attolini, I. Settis ed.
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